Most students of Armenian history in the West fail to realize that one of the two names for our nation, Armenia, is much older than the classical Behistun inscriptions in Persia dating from sixth century BC. Assyrian and Egyptian sources from around 1500 BC and earlier clearly reference a nation within Asia Minor called "Ermen" or "Armani" which are the linguistic equivalents of the more familiar terms Armen or Armenia. Moreover, black and red glazed pottery associated with the conquering Hyksos that ruled Egypt for many centuries may also be linked to the earlier Metsamor culture of the Armenian Highlands. Whats more, Armenian linguists and historians trace the origins of the Hyksos to the Armenian Highlands. Western scholars sometimes use the erroneous term "Bedouin Princes" to describe the Hyksos. However, this seems to be a misinterpretation of the name. The name Hyksos simply implies nomadic or semi-nomadic horsemen - not Bedouin, which implies Arabian nomads. Another fascinating piece of information regarding ancient Egypt that most people do not know is the well established fact that Nefertiti, the world famous queen of Egypt, the women that revolutionized the Nile valley by bringing sun worship into Egypt, was an Armenian highlander. Queen Nefertiti of Egypt was a native of Mitanni. The Mittani kingdom of the Armenian Highlands was an off-shoot of the Hurrian kingdom. The Hurri and the Mittani were in turn the contemporaries of other Armenian highlanders, the Hittites and most probably the Hykos. Today, all the aforementioned nations of the Armenian Highlands are considered to be, in varying degrees, proto-Armenians. Modern day Armenians are the direct descendants of those ancient tribes.
Egypt, the Hyksos and Armenia
EGYPTIANS build first pyramid ca 3000 BC in Sumerian terrace style; entrance faces rising sun in the East. Pharaoh, a term originally used to describe king's residence, is translated "great house." The 3,4,5 rule (used to build pyramids, known 3000 years later as Pythagoras Theorem): Take three straight lines. Make one 3 units long, another 4 units long, the last 5 units long. Join them together to make a triangle. The angle opposite the longest line will always be a right angle. The 3,4,5 rule is connected to these numbers: 3 squared, plus 4 squared, equals 5 squared. This principle was also used in India and Peru brickmaking! Many ancient representations of the Great Pyramid feature a bright apex. The apex has been pictured as an observing eye, or a bright light source. The emblem of the eye in the pyramid is still vastly used today. Perhaps pyramids were used as some sort of light beacon. Pyramid is a Greek word meaning "fire in the center." (Greek pyra "fire, light" and midos "measures." Old English, Norse fyr "fire." Radekhiv, Ukraine heraldry is this symbol.) One of Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Pharos (Lighthouse) of Alexandria was constructed ca 285 BC. Over 300 feet tall, it stood on the tip of Pharos Island in the harbor of Alexandria in Egypt. On a related note, Mari, Syria used signal fires, suggesting it was common at some point in history.
Heket - goddess of childbirth; Het - serpent goddess, rules fire; Khet - flame or fire (Egyptian.) Khetar - New Delhi. Kheter "crown", Kheter Malkut "crown + king" (Tatar); "ta hemet nesewt" king's wife. AKH "transformed spirit", "to be agreeable", "to be advantageous" or "to be splendid". The idea around akh was positive; Akh by itself was represented as a bird but when it appeared for humans it was in the form of a ghost.
PER-RE (Egyptian "City of the Sun"), HELIOPOLIS (Greek), ON (Bible): ancient city at the apex of the Nile River delta, near Cairo (located between Bubastis -north, and Memphis -south.) 2900 BC: First traces of Heliopolis in history, the god TEM was first revered. 2400 BC: priests succeed in making the CULT OF RE the state religion; the temple of Heliopolis 1570-1085 BC, was among the most important cult centres of Egypt. Ca 1000 BC: Slow decline for Heliopolis starts. After the founding of Alexandria in 332, Heliopolis is forgotten. From 30 BC: Roman invasion of Egypt, most obelisks are removed, city walls used for construction of other cities. (Diety transition: Tem > Re > Amon-Re.)
THEBES, capital during the period of the Middle and New Kingdoms, city of the god Amon. With temples and palaces at Karnak and Luxor and necropolises of the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens, Thebes is a striking testimony to Egyptian civilization at its height. Egypt: 9th - 10th Dynasty, 2135-1986 BC, several kings named KHETI. King Amunemhet I ca 1991-1962 BC, conducted an expedition of 10,000 men to the quarries of Hammamet for a sarcophagus.
HYKSOS KINGS OF EGYPT
Canaanite nomads entered the country freely. Most of these settled and became traders, farmers or craftsmen, but at least one of them, KHENDJER (Userkare, Ouserkare, Userkara), became a king ca 1747 BC. A small pyramid at Saqqara belonged to King Khendjer, two kings by the same name possible. By the end of the 13th Dynasty, the Eastern Delta was populated mostly by Asiatics (people from Asia Minor.)
HYKSOS, aka HK3W H3SWT, HEKA-KHASWT, HIKAU-KHASUT, HIKAU-KHOSWET, AMU, AAM, SETETYU ca 1720-1570 BC; Hyksos (Greek) hk3w h3swt (Egyptian) Heka-Khaswt "RULERS OF FOREIGN LANDS" ruled Egypt for 1180 years, 13-17th dynasty. (18th dynasty '3mw, translated 'Asiatics.') It has long been thought that there might be some relationship between the mysterious Hyksos kings of Egypt and the Patriarchs to account for the favorable reception, even royal distinction, given the latter. This relationship has been established by the discoveries of Petrie at Tell el-Yehudiyeh (Petrie, Hyksos and Israelite Cities). Although Hyksos race is not stated, their tribal character is that they were "Bedouin princes," (horse riders) leaders of the nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes of Upper and Lower Ruthen, (Syria and Palestine), and northern and western Arabia, as were the Patriarchs, so Hyksos were shown the consideration of one "Bedouin prince" for another. The civilization of Palestine in the patriarchal age was fully equal to that of Egypt. Non-Egyptian inhabitants of Dab'a identified with Hyksos of Egyptian texts, and Tell el-Dab'a with Hyksos capital of Avaris (aka El Arish.) Hyksos originated in the Levant from Canaanite ethnic stock. Two Hyksos sites, Tell el-Dab'a and Tell el-Maskhuta, have been excavated; Hyksos pottery: black and red polished juglets from Tell el-Maskhuta: closest resemblance in form and techniques to Syria-Palestine.
FIFTEENTH DYNASTY "GREATER HYKSOS KINGS" OF UPPER EGYPT ca 1663 -1555 BC (Salitis, Beon, Apachnas?) "These people, whom we called kings before, and shepherds too, and their descendants, held Egypt for 511 years." Confined to AVARIS area during rein of Egyptian Alisphragmuthosis; his son Tethmosis negotiated a treaty, in which Hyksos left Lower Egypt, crossed into Syria, and in a country now called Judea, built the city called JERUSALEM. "Thus saith the Lord God unto Jerusalem. Thy birth and thy origin are of the land of Canaan; thy father was an AMORITE, and thy mother a HITTITE." (HYKSOS are AMORITE?)
(NOTE: 6 Kingships with years of reign from Manetho, with name known then, doesn't include Queen Hatsepsut.) Salitis aka Salatis, Sheshi - conquest of Memphis (1674-1661 BC) ruled 13 yrs; Yakubber aka, Bnon, Beon (1661-1617 BC) ruled 44 yrs; Khyan aka Khian, Iannas, Apachnan, Apachnas. KHYAN's artifacts found as far as Babylon, Knossos and Hatti. (1617-1581 BC) ruled 36.5 yrs; Apepi I aka Apopis, Apophis, Auserre (ca 1600-1560) sent a letter to king Seqenenre of Thebes, former capital of Egypt (1581 - 1520 BC) ruled 61 yrs; Apepi II aka, Khamudi (c.1542-1532); *Janine (1520-1470 BC) ruled 50 yrs; Queen HATSEPSUT (Hapsethsos, Hatshetsut), first woman Pharoah, 1498-1483 BC, is trading with country now known as Somolia. *Assis (1470-1421 BC) ruled 49 yrs.
SIXTEENTH DYNASTY - 32 Shepherd kings, ruling 518 years. Anat-Her aka Anather, User-anat, Semqen, ZAKET, Wasa, Qar, Pepi III, Bebankh, Nebmaatre, Nikare II, Aahotepre, Aaneterire, Nubankhre, Nubuserre, Khauserre, KHAMURE (Golden Falcon), Jacob-Baal, Yakbam akaYakobaam, Yoam, Amu...?; (zakat "purification" - Ottoman Turks.)
SEVENTEEN DYNASTY - 43 Shepherd kings, ruling 151 years concurrent with Theban kings. Antef V, Rahotep, Sobekemzaf I, Djehuti, Mentuhotep VII, Nebirau I, Nebirau II, Semenenre, Suserenre, Sobekemzag II, Antef VI, Antef VII, Taa I (Senakhetenre), Taa II (Seqenenre, Sekenenre), Kamose (Wadjkheperre). Egyptian queens of this epoch were crucial to the success of the Thebans. They provided legal continuity, and often led their armies after the demise of their husbands. The tomb of Queen AHHOTEP, wife of Tao II or successor Kamose, contained much weaponry and three golden flies (Egyptian award for bravery); Ahmoses's inscription praises her military leadership." Some HYKSOS used Egyptian names, did not try to integrate their own heritage into the Egyptian culture, suggesting long-term affiliation with Egyptian culture. (Philistine link with god Ba'al.)
Hyksos rule over Lower Egypt lasted from the conquest of Memphis by Salitis (Sheshi) in 1674 BC, till their expulsion in 1567 BC (107 years) and was mainly a time of peace and prosperity. Major Hyksos cities were at Tell el-Yahudiyeh, Heliopolis, Tell el-Maskhuta and Tell ed-Dab'a. Egyptian religion was respected; Egyptian was the language of government; and many Egyptians served in the administration. Their most important contributions to Egyptian culture were perhaps the introduction of Canaanite deities such as the Storm God identified with Seth, and Asian artifacts, instrumental in abrogating the despotism and isolationism of the Old and Middle kingdoms. Foreign culture became established, and Egyptians acquired new military techniques, such as use of the horse-drawn chariot and composite bow during this period. Hyksos conquests were strengthened by a type of rectangular fortification of beaten earth used as a fortress; examples of these mounds were discovered in Canaan at Jericho, Sihem, and Lahish. They maintained tribute or trade relations with Minoans and Babylonians.
Hitttites appear in Egyptian documents in the 18th dynasty ca 1550 BC.
Egyptian Thothmes III, in his twenty-third year (ca 1458 BC), after a great victory over the RUTENNU or LUDENNU (Mesopotamians and Lydians), received the submission of the "chiefs of Ermenen" and others. In his thirty-third year, Thothmes III mentions the people of Ermenen as paying tribute when he held his court at Nineveh, Babylon, and says that in their land "heaven rests upon its four pillars." (Ermenen is Armenia, Armenians call their country Chaiastan, a distance of about 1000 miles to Egypt.)
EGYPT (different kings for Upper and Lower Egypt?)
Tell el-Amarna Letters, ca 1480 BC, have letters from chiefs subject to Amenophis III at Joppa, Ashkelon, Gezer, Lachish and Keilah. Most of the letters are dated to the reigns of Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV. AMENHOTEP III, aka Akhnaton, Akhenaten, reign 1402-1364 BC. AMENHOTEP IV, aka Akhenaten, reign 1350-1334 at Thebes. Known as the "heretic Pharoah." Wife NEFERTITI disappears from records after 12 years, replaced by male "co-ruler." Son TUTANKAMEN (tut-an-akun, tut-an-amun) became Pharoah, died 1336 BC. His widow appeals to Hittite king to send her a son to marry, but ends up marrying middle aged General H.R.M.H.B. and dies shortly after. HOREMHEB (Harmhab), the king's deputy; first wife Amenia, second marriage to Nefertiti's sister, MUTNODJMET (Mutnedjmet.) Horemheb ruled 1336-1306 BC, died without heir. Named RAMSES I as Pharoah. Egyptian Ay (it-netjer) 1323-1319 BC, throne name Kheperkheperu-re. First documented as a Master of Horses, rose throught the ranks to become king.
Soon after RAMSES I was buried, new Pharaoh SETI had trouble on his hands. A series of wars erupt, triggered by the advances of neighboring peoples on the Egyptian Nile Delta, encouraged by weak and short reign of Ramesses I. The Shasu Bedouin (Bedawi) were threatening north eastern trade routes. Seti had to repell these people and secure Egyptian borders to the North, while maintaining and expanding his territory in the south and east. Only vast expanses of the Western Desert, "land of the dead" (Sahara), held no approaching enemies. Six battle paintings are ranged in a series on the outer wall of the north side the Great Hall. On each of the many pillars, hieroglyphs describe Seti's campaign to repulse the intruders. Another war in the east begins in the very first year of Seti's reign. Seti raised an army and marched North, to the Temple on Mount Casius, past the current boundary of Egypt and deep into the land of the PHILISTINES. "In the first year of King Seti there took place by the strong arm of Pharaoh the annihilation of the hostile SHASU, from the fortress of KHETAM of the land of ZARU, as far as KANAAN." The Shasu next are routed in PHOENICIAN territory. Seti is shown with Mehy, fighting the next enemy, the RUTENNU of Canaan: (Rutennu related to Ruthen?)
LIST OF CONQUERED NATIONS: 1. Kheta, the land of the Kheta. (HITTITE); 2. Naharain, the river-land (Mesopotamia) (NAIRI, HURRIAN ?); 3. Upper Ruthen, land of Rutennu (Canaan, Syria) 4. Lower Ruthen, land of Ludennu? (Northern Syria, Palestine) The land of Moab is placed in Ruthen.; 5. Singar city and land of Singara, (Mesopotamia); 6. Unu, an unknown island or coast land; 7. Kadesh, in the land of AMORITES (Turkey); 8. Pa-Bekh; 9. Kadnaf (both names need to be defined); 10. Asebi, (island of Cyprus); 11. Mannus, the city and land of Mallos; 12. Aguptha, land of Cappadocia, Turkey; 13. Balnu Balaneae, north of Aradus. Also Canaanite cities mentioned on the temple of Abydos: Zithagael, Zor (Tyre, Lebanon), Inuam or Jamnia, Pa-Hir (Hil), Galilee? or Hali in the tribe of ASHUR, and Bitha-antha or Beth-anoth, Qartha-anbu or Kiriath-eneb (in Judah).
Battle of Kadesh, Egyptian Account, 1294 BC. Beginning of victory of King Usermare-Setepnere Ramses II. (Egyptian-Hittite conflict 1286 - 1269 BC, Treaty of Kadesh 1259 BC.) Hittites ambush Egyptians near Kadesh (Cades) on Orontes River. Unable to hold onto it, Seti returns it to the Hittite king in a peace treaty. RAMSES II, 1304-1212 BC, gives tribute to his father SETI: "those of the North (fair haired in illustrations) and the South beneath my feet." Ramesses II wed Hittite princess Maathornefrerure and granted her the same title 'Great King's Wife' as he did to his principal wife Nefertari. Rameses II in his twenty-first year, in war with KHETA-SIRA, king of the Hittites, probably subdued Armenia. Ramses II illustrations show him with a shaved head and a long braid on the side. Mummy reveals he was 5'6" tall, had an aquiline nose and was red-haired. His 13th son, Merenptah, became Pharoah aged 60's, died 1202 BC. (Maat, Egyptian goddess of truth and justice.